SI Chemistry is a full-service integrator of automation and process control systems with extensive experience in both the nuclear and fossil-fuel power generation industry. Automation service includes the following:

  • Preliminary design and specification development
  • Control philosophy/ system description
  • Detailed design packages (drawings, calculations, etc.)
  • Control panel design and fabrication
  • PLC & HMI programming & validation
  • Installation instructions
  • Installation, operation and maintenance manuals
  • Plant engineering change package (technical support)
  • Plant operating procedure development/ markup Training
  • Installation & post modification test procedures
  • Field support services (installation, testing, and startup)
  • Maintenance support

Process Controls Automation 01

Our experience using various automation hardware and software products affords us the flexibility to meet and exceed the customer's requirements regardless of the specified hardware, software or communication platforms including GE-IP, AB/Rockwell, Modicon or Siemens.

Whether the process control system is needed for a new plant process or as an upgrade to an existing plant system, and no matter the size, we will tailor each to the plant's specific needs and design. Our expertise in power plant process design and operation provides for an exceptional design which results in exceptional system performance and client satisfaction.

Control Philosophy/System Description

Our multi-disciplined engineering staff is experienced in providing conceptual/preliminary system designs which are of enough detail for the development of the customer's bid specification. To convey the basic operating principles and functions of the proposed control system, a Control Philosophy is developed before a detailed design package. This document typically includes a description of the process along with applicable system equipment. More importantly, an overview of operational functionality, commands, and settings are outlined. Process control loops are identified along with their respective operating ranges and alarm setpoints. Automation sequence and logical flow charts are also incorporated along with associated operational permissions, failure modes, and process alarms.

Detailed Design Package

The detailed design package incorporates all required software code, calculations, drawings and documentation associated with the control system design necessary for final approval of the customer's overall modification design package (Engineering Change Package, etc.). SI Chemistry can provide the necessary calculations for the electrical, mechanical and structural components of the control system. All drawings are provided in CAD format (Microstation/AutoCAD).


We maintain a 20+ year, collaborative relationship with a local fabrication shop. All fabrication work is completed within specification using quality workmanship.

Simulation Testing/Inspection

SI Chemistry incorporates testing of the completed control system using a hard-wired simulation system. This device is used to validate all component wiring as well as the developed software code. It provides the ability to simulate an operation of the control system, therefore, providing the customer with the ability to perform operational test runs during the final inspection of the system. This level of testing minimizes post-installation design changes. After final approval and delivery, the simulation unit is typically setup on-site with the control system where the customer can continue with operational procedural development training.


We can provide knowledgeable staff and the necessary documentation for on-site training of the customer's plant personnel (Operations, Maintenance, etc.). Using the simulation system provided, hands-on training has been employed as the best tool for ensuring personnel is comfortable with the system components and functionality before field installation.


On-site installation support is available to ensure all post-installation equipment is in working order. This includes working with installation crews during both point-to-point continuity checks, system power-up, and process signal loop calibration.


On-site support is available during system start-up. Typically, start-up support covers final system configuration and calibration during both dry and wet-run testing. Wet-run testing with the plant process during this phase may require final software code adjustments.

Integrated Flow Distributor


SI Chemistry designs and builds computer-based measurement and instrumentation control systems. Utilizing National Instrument's LabVIEW® system design software, we have the capability to deliver a customized product that will meet each plant's specific needs.

We develop solutions to meet a wide range of applications from direct measurement for data visualization and acquisition, to remote instrument automation and control. The LabVIEW software, with a full array of third-party hardware and software communication bus driver libraries, allows for seamless integration of the application, thus eliminating the need to replace existing system components. We can also design, build and develop a state of the art system using the latest equipment and technologies.


  • Chemistry Laboratory Equipment
  • Remote Field Instrument Monitoring & Data Acquisition
  • Automating Measurements and Processing Signal Data
  • Instrument Control


To improve the performance of bottom tube sheet Condensate Filter Demineralizers (CF/Ds) in Japan, Organo Corporation studied the optimum vessel internal configuration for precoat application and retention. The studies were performed in the laboratory, pilot plant and at actual BWR plants. Organo was successful in achieving significant performance improvements by development and installation of what is the IFD (Integrated Flow Distributor) technology. The performance improvement with yarn-wound cylindrical septa was measured regarding operating run length to a differential pressure endpoint, which was increased by a factor of about two. As a result, all bottom tube sheet BWR CF/D vessels in Japan were retrofitted with the Organo IFD, and new vessels were designed with this technology incorporated. When RWCU (Reactor Water Cleanup) System flow rates were increased in Japan from 1% to 2% of feedwater flow, IFDs were added to existing RWCU F/D vessels. Despite doubling of the area flow rates, DFs for cobalt were improved.

Adaptation of the IFD to U.S. bottom tube sheet F/D installations offers similar benefits as experienced in Japan with cylindrical surface septa. Organo and SI Chemistry have collaborated in bringing the IFD technology to existing U.S. plants. While IFD experience in Japan was exclusive with cylindrical surface septa, performance benefits have been achieved in the U.S. with both cylindrical and pleated outer surface precoated septa.

Integrated Flow Distributor IFD Added


A single-source management and tracking program in Microsoft Excel format for deep bed condensate demineralizers, the program compiles the data and results required by Chemistry, System Engineering and Operations to effectively manage the Condensate Polishers. The plant is provided with a defensible and documented method of conservatively estimating the remaining ion exchange capacity of each bed, without the need for resin sampling and laboratory residual capacity determinations. The program is periodically upgraded based on industry needs and requests by users. 


Configuration for a specific plant is based on representative analyses of the main condenser circulating cooling water, Condensate Polisher bed volumes and bed/vessel designations.


  • All operating and chemistry data are input on a single template. Daily values are input for power, CDI conductivity, condensate temperature, CW conductivity, condensate flow, CDI iron crud, flow through each bed and operating status (In Service, Out of Service, etc.), CDE iron crud, dP (system, bed, post strainer and lateral) and remarks.
  • Templates are included to input the resin analysis for each lot of resin received; both cation and anion, creating a convenient reference to the analyzed physical and chemical properties of each resin lot received.
  • The actual new resin capacity data for each bed of resin installed is also input, so differences between resin lots will be accounted for in the ionic loading calculations.
  • From a single entry of the capacity of each new bed, the ionic loading calculations are automatically updated for days after the replacement date.
  • A template for adding resins to an existing bed is included, which automatically adjusts the remaining capacity after the addition date.
  • CDI Conductivity, temperature and power charts.
  • Circulating water leak and circulating water conductivity charts
  • Auto-generation of anion, cation and dP loading or trend chart.


Calculation Mode

SI Chemistry's ICON software is a menu-driven user-friendly program for calculating:

  • Conductivity and pH @ 25º C from input concentrations of selected ions.
  • Strong ions and weakly dissociated species in an ion conductivity balance.

Internal Database

ICON has an internal database of Limiting Equivalent Conductances and Equivalent Weights for the significant strong cations and anions, and for weakly ionized substances such as boron, chromium and carbon dioxide. The program can be used to correct conductivity for soluble iron and soluble zinc as allowed by water chemistry guidelines.

Calculating Conductivity and pH from Concentration Inputs

Users select the units for input concentrations (from a menu of ppb, ppm, μeq/l or meq/l) and supply the concentration values for each selected ion. Calculations automatically include H+ and OH- concentrations consistent with the solution electro-neutrality and dissociation constant for water at 25º C.

In the special case of CO3-2 and HCO3-, only one concentration (HCO3-) is specified since the other is solved for automatically by the equilibrium relationship between these two ions and the H+ ion. Species such as boron and chromium are entered as the elemental concentration, and the ionic concentrations of borate, chromate, and bichromate are automatically determined by the calculation.

The Program assumes that all soluble iron is Fe+2. This is a reasonable assumption for pH<8.5 since at equilibrium, soluble Fe+2 is >90%. However, user should take into account that for pH > 9.5 calculated results will not be representative of actual conductivity since the molar ratio of total Fe to Fe+2 is 2, i.e., half Fe+2 and half Fe(OH)+ .

Producing Hard Copy Records

Calculated results are shown in the corresponding system worksheet and logged in the ICON Data Log Worksheet in the Program. The Data Log Worksheet may be exported to another workbook with a command button.