American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE

Structural Design for Physical Security

Structural Integrity’s Own, Andy Coughlin published by American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCEAndy Coughlin’s work has been published in the ASCE Structural Design for Physical Security: State of the Practice. The Task Committee on Structural Design prepared the publication for Physical Security of the Blast, Shock, and Impact Committee of the Dynamic Effects Technical Administration Committee of the Structural Engineering Institute of ASCE.  Andy wrote Chapter 10 on Testing and Certification for Physical Security and assisted on several other chapters.

Structural Design for Physical Security, MOP 142, provides an overview of the typical design considerations encountered in new construction and renovation of facilities for physical security. The constant change in threat tactics and types has led to the need for physical security designs that account for these new considerations and anticipate the environment of the future, with flexibility and adaptability being priorities. This Manual of Practice serves as a replacement for the 1999 technical report Structural Design for Physical Security: State of the Practice and is intended to provide a roadmap for designers and engineers involved in physical security. It contains references to other books, standards, and research.

Topics include

  • Threat determination and available assessment and criteria documents,
  • Methods by which structural loadings are derived for the determined threats,
  • Function and selection of structural systems,
  • Design of structural components,
  • Function and selection of window and facade components,
  • Specific considerations for retrofitting structures,
  • Testing methodologies, and
  • Bridge security.

This book will be a valuable resource to structural engineers and design professionals involved with projects that have physical security concerns related to explosive, ballistic, forced entry, and hostile vehicle threats.

Of particular note is the publication of the process by which products can be tested and certified to achieve physical security performance in blast, ballistics, forced entry, and vehicle impact.  Often unclear or overly specific requirements hamper the application of quality products which protect people and assets from attack.  The certification process below shows how approved agencies, like SI’s TRU Compliance, play a role in testing, evaluating, and selecting products for use in critical physical security applications, rather than relying solely on the claims of the manufacturers.  TRU’s certification program is the first of its kind to receive IAS Accreditation for the certification of physical security products.Certification Process

News & Views, Volume 49 | The 4th Dimension- Lifecycle Assessment of Critical Structures

News & Views, Volume 49 | The 4th Dimension: Lifecycle Assessment of Critical Structures

By:  Dan Parker, PE

News & Views, Volume 49 | The 4th Dimension- Lifecycle Assessment of Critical Structures

By analytically simulating the steps in the construction process, including the sequence of concrete placements, and tracking the history of the material behavior starting from initial placement, the potential for cracking is evaluated by comparing the time dependent stress and strains to the concrete cracking resistance and capacity.

Aging Infrastructure Issues

The infrastructure in the United States is aging and, whether publicly or privately owned, significant resources are required to repair, replace, or modernize it.  Due to the high costs associated with these efforts, owners need to identify structures with high risk-of-failure consequences and find the most cost-effective solutions for rehabilitation.  High consequence infrastructure includes:

  • Highway and railway bridges,
  • Roadways for intra and interstate transportation,
  • Dams, locks, and levees for flood control and cargo transportation,
  • High rise business, apartment, and condominium towers, and
  • Power generation and distribution facilities for Nuclear, Fossil and Hydro utilities.
News & View, Volume 48 | Post Seismic Certification - What Do Manufacturers Do to Keep Their Products TRU Listed?

News & Views, Volume 48 | Post Seismic Certification: What Do Manufacturers Do to Keep Their Products TRU Listed?

By:  Galen Reid and Katie Braman How does TRU or the public know the manufacturer is continuing to produce a product that complies with the certified construction and configuration without retesting periodically? Certification of products to withstand extreme event loading can open many opportunities for manufacturers to sell high value products when others have a […]

News & View, Volume 48 | SI Supports Parsons' “DetectWise Modular COVID Test Facility

News & Views, Volume 48 | SI Supports Parsons’ “DetectWise” Modular COVID Test Facility

By:  Zach Withall and Matthew Naugle, PENews & View, Volume 48 | SI Supports Parsons' “DetectWise Modular COVID Test Facility

The health facility is designed to fully separate patients from medical workers, protecting both parties and minimizing the PPE required to operate the suite.

COVID-19 has presented humanity with unprecedented challenges.  As economies reopen, solutions are needed that allow businesses to operate while protecting the health, safety, and security of the general public.

In an effort to positively impact that change, Structural Integrity Associates (SI) is working with Parsons Corporation, a global technology leader, to design a self-contained, mobile health screening facility for rapid, efficient and scalable testing.

The mobile facility is part of Parsons’ DetectWise™ suite of health solutions meant to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. SI provided structural design services for the facility.

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News & View, Volume 47 | Aircraft Impact Assessments for NUSCALE Power

News & Views, Volume 47 | Aircraft Impact Assessments for NUSCALE Power

By:  Eric Kjolsing, Ph.D., PE

From 2015 to 2019 Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. (SI) worked with News & View, Volume 47 | Aircraft Impact Assessments for NUSCALE PowerNuScale Power,LLC. to develop structural details for and perform aircraft impact assessments of NuScale’s SMR Reactor Building.  The assessments were based on finite element analyses of various strike scenarios stemming from NEI 07-13 guidance.  ANACAP, a proprietary SI concrete constitutive model, was used in the finite element analyses.  Among other capabilities, the ANACAP model can capture multi-axial tensile cracking, compressive crushing with strain softening, and crack dependent shear stiffness.

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News & View, Volume 47 | TRU Compliance Expands into Physical Security | Testing and Certification Services

News & View, Volume 47 | TRU Compliance Expands into Physical Security – Testing and Certification Services

By:  Dan Zentner

This service coincides with the upcoming publication of the Structural Design for Physical Security Manual of Practice by the American Society of Civil Engineers, with TRU Compliance Director Andy Coughlin as coauthor.

News & View, Volume 47 | TRU Compliance Expands into Physical Security | Testing and Certification ServicesTRU Compliance’s testing and certification services is expanding into the dynamic field of Physical Security. This service coincides with the upcoming publication of the Structural Design for Physical Security Manual of Practice by the American Society of Civil Engineers, with TRU Compliance Director Andy Coughlin as coauthor.  TRU’s practice in this arena includes Blast, Ballistics, Vehicle Impact and Forced Entry services. This is possible through TRU’s partnerships with leading test laboratories such as Oregon Ballistics Labs, Stone-OBL, BakerRisk, Calspan, and others.  Physical Security certification by TRU is accredited by the International Accreditation Service and compliments TRU’s accredited Seismic and Wind Certifications.

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News & View, Volume 46 | Identifying Failure Mechanisms of Typical I-Section Floodwalls

News & Views, Volume 46 | Identifying Failure Mechanisms of Typical I-Section Floodwalls

By: Eric Kjolsing and Dan Parker

News & View, Volume 46 | Identifying Failure Mechanisms of Typical I-Section FloodwallsIn 2018, Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. (SI) supported the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) in the structural assessment of the concrete-to-steel connection in typical I-Section flood walls. A representative flood wall section is shown in Figure 1. This effort was part of a broader scope of work in which the USACE is revising their guidance for the design of flood and retaining walls, EM 1110-2-6066.  The purpose of the structural assessment was to better understand the mechanics of load transfer from the reinforced concrete section to the embedded sheet pile. Three-dimensional finite element models of the connection were developed employing non-linear constitutive properties for the concrete, structural steel and reinforcement to achieve this goal.  A total of nine different I-Wall configurations with varying wall geometry, sheet pile embedment depth, and connection details were analyzed.  Hydrostatic load was applied incrementally to simulate the actual load distribution due to a rising water level. 

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News & View, Volume 46 | TRU Compliance Achieves Accreditation as a Product Certification Body

News & Views, Volume 46 | TRU Compliance Achieves Accreditation as a Product Certification Body

By: Andy Coughlin

News & View, Volume 46 | TRU Compliance Achieves Accreditation as a Product Certification BodyTRU Compliance, a division of Structural Integrity Associates, announced in March the achievement of accreditation from the International Accreditation Service (IAS) as a product certification body for seismic, wind, and blast/physical security performance of nonstructural components. According to the International Accreditation Service, TRU Compliance is the second company to be certified for Seismic performance of non-structural components and the first company to be certified for Wind and Blast/Physical Security performance.

“This is a significant milestone for Structural Integrity and our certification agency, TRU Compliance,” Chris Larsen, Vice President of Critical Structures at Structural Integrity comments. “The accreditation further validates our robust program as well as our comprehensive approach, which not only meets the stringent guidelines of the ISO standards but offers our customers a full scope solution for product certification”.

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News & View, Volume 46 | Assessing Prestress Losses in a Nuclear Containment Structure for License Renewal

News & Views, Volume 46 | Assessing Prestress Losses in a Nuclear Containment Structure for License Renewal

By: Eric Kjolsing

News & View, Volume 46 | Assessing Prestress Losses in a Nuclear Containment Structure for License RenewalNuclear power plants around the world are approaching the end of their original 40-year design life.  Efforts are underway to extend the operating license for these plants to 60 years or beyond.  As part of the license extension, it must be demonstrated that the reactor containment building remains able to safely perform its intended functions for the extended duration of operation.  Many of these containment buildings utilize a post-tensioned concrete design where the tendons are grouted after tensioning.  Since these grouted tendons cannot be re-tensioned, an assessment for the loss in prestress beyond the original design life must be performed.

This article describes a methodology to assess the structural performance of a containment structure over time as a function of confidence in the tendon losses and is split into three parts:

  1. A description of the methodology
  2. A representative probabilistic assessment
  3. Representative analysis results

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News & View, Volume 46 | Adding Value Through Test Informed Modeling- Hydro Structures

News & Views, Volume 46 | Adding Value Through Test Informed Modeling: Hydro Structures

By: Eric Kjolsing and Dan Parker

News & View, Volume 46 | Adding Value Through Test Informed Modeling- Hydro StructuresIn 2018, Structural Integrity Associates (SI) supported a utility in the structural assessment of a submerged concrete intake tower.  The tower is nearly a century old and was investigated as part of the utility’s periodic maintenance program. 

The assessment required the generation of an analysis model that accounted for both the structure and the surrounding water.  When accounting for fluid effects, a typical analysis approach is to develop a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model that explicitly accounts for the interaction between the surrounding water and concrete tower.  However, this modeling approach is expensive both in terms of (a) cost, due to the increased effort needed in generating the model and (b) schedule, due to the increased analysis run time.  In lieu of developing an FSI model, SI implemented an alternative numerical approach to model the effects of the water and justified the approach through physical testing of the in-situ structure.

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