News & Views, Volume 51 | Drone Inspections


By:  Jason Van Velsor and Robert Chambers

Structural Integrity (SI) has recently added drones to our toolbox of inspection equipment. Using drones, inspectors are able to complete visual inspections safely and more efficiently. Applications of drones for visual inspections include plant and piping walkdowns, structural inspections and atmospheric corrosion monitoring (ACM) of exposed pipeline.

Figure 1. Drone image of a dent on an elevated section of pipeline

Pipe hanger walkdowns at fossil and combined cycle plants are part of a routine inspection process. During these inspections, the inspector is required to view and mark down pipe hanger positions and assess their condition. While some hangers provide easy access for the inspector, this is not always the case. Some of these may be located in elevated positions that require the plant to build out scaffolding, which not only increases the cost, but also can put the inspector at risk when working at elevation. With the use of drones, the inspector can fly up to the pipe hangers from a safe location and get a live high-resolution video feed from the camera mounted on the drone. Saving pictures and the video footage can also allow the inspector to go back and review the footage at a later time.

ACM is another example where drones have proven to be a useful tool. ACM inspections of outdoor above ground pipelines are typically done by

walking down the pipeline and recording any signs of atmospheric corrosion. There are many occasions where the pipeline will be elevated or cross over rivers and railroads, requiring scaffolding or fall protection. By using a drone to fly along the pipeline, the inspection can be completed much more efficiently and safely. In situations where a GPS signal is available, such as outdoor pipeline inspections, the GPS coordinates can be saved with each photo. Custom SI-developed software can then automatically compile the acquired images and create a KML file to be viewed in Google Earth, allowing the client to get an overview of the inspection results. 

Figure 2. Google Earth view of image locations

Moving forward, SI plans to utilize these drones for more than just visual inspections. Possible applications could include using drones to perform ultrasonic thickness testing or Structural Integrity Pulsed Eddy Current (SIPEC™) examinations. All of SI’s pilots in command hold valid FAA Part 107 certificates and pilot registered drones.

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Structural Integrity Associates | News and Views, Volume 51 | Acoustic Emission Testing Streamlining Requalification of Heavy Lift Equipment

News & Views, Volume 51 | Acoustic Emission Testing


By:  Mike Battaglia and Jason Van Velsor

Structural Integrity Associates | News and Views, Volume 51 | Acoustic Emission Testing Streamlining Requalification of Heavy Lift Equipment

Figure 1. Heavy lift rig attached to reactor head in preparation for removal.

Proper control of heavy loads is critical in any industrial application as faulty equipment or practices can have severe consequences.  The lifting technique, equipment, and operator qualifications must all meet or exceed applicable standards to ensure industrial safety.  The significance of heavy lifts at commercial nuclear facilities is, perhaps, even greater.  In addition to the consequences of an adverse event that are common to any industry (bodily injury or human fatality, equipment damage, etc.), the nuclear industry adds additional challenges.  Such an adverse event in the nuclear industry can also affect (depending on the specific lift) fuel geometry / criticality, system shutdown capability, damage to safety systems, etc.  One example of a critical lift in nuclear power facilities is the reactor vessel head / reactor internals lift.  

The requirement to inspect the heavy lifting equipment for structural integrity is prescribed in NUREG-0612, Control of Heavy Loads At Nuclear Power Plants, as enforced by NRC Generic Letter 81-07. The aforementioned NUREG document describes specific requirements for special lifting devices.  The requirements prescribed include: 

  • Special lifting devices are subject to 1.5X rates load followed by visual inspection, or
  • Dimensional testing and non-destructive examination (NDE) of the load bearing welds

In the case of the former requirement, it can be difficult or even dangerous to test these lift rigs, which are designed to carry over 150 tons, at a factor of 1.5x.  In the case of the latter requirement, employing the more traditional NDE techniques of MT, PT, and UT to inspect the lift rigs can be costly (both in terms of labor and radiological dose) and time consuming, in terms of impact to outage critical path, depending on when the inspection is performed.  In PWRs or BWRs, inspections are performed in the reactor containment, or radiation-controlled area, and are typically only performed during the outage.   

Ultimately, the NRC requires licensees to determine how they will comply with the NUREG requirements.  One method that has been adopted (primarily by PWR plants) is Acoustic Emission (AE) testing.  AE testing is a non-destructive testing process that uses high-frequency sensors to detect structure-borne sound emissions from the material or structure when under load.  The process detects these acoustic emission events and, based on sensor locations and the known sound velocity and attenuation, can identify the approximate location of the sources or areas of concern.  If such areas are identified, based on analysis of the data captured under load, those areas must be further investigated to characterize the indication.  Such additional techniques may include surface examination (MT or PT), or volumetric UT to precisely locate, characterize, and size any indications.  

Employing an advanced technique such as AE can significantly reduce the time required to perform this evolution, also reducing both the cost and dose associated with meeting the NUREG requirements.  

The original deployment of this method was championed by a utility in the mid-1980’s and has since been adopted by many of PWR plants as the preferred inspection method.  

In 2021, SI began offering AE testing services for reactor head lift rigs, including the qualified personnel, equipment, and tooling necessary to perform this work.  Our first implementation was at a nuclear plant in the Southeast US in the fall of 2021, and additional implementations are contracted in the spring and fall of 2022, and beyond.  

There are several advantages to AE testing that make it uniquely suited for the vessel head (or internals) lift application.  First, AE is a very sensitive technique, capable of picking up emissions from anomalies that cannot be detected by traditional techniques.  This allows for identifying areas of potential / future concern before they are an imminent safety danger.  Second, AE sensors are capable of sensing relevant emissions from a reasonable distance (up to 10 ft or more) between source emission and sensor placement.  As such, AE testing can monitor the entire lifting structure with a reasonable number of sensors (typically less than 20) placed on the structure.  Thus, sensors are strategically placed on the structure where failure is most likely – i.e., the mechanical or welded connections (joints) between structural members.  

This strategic sensor placement has another inherent advantage unique to the AE process.  If an indication is noted, the system has the capability to isolate the approximate source location (generally within a few inches) of the emission.  This is accomplished using a calculation that considers the arrival time and intensity of the acoustic emission at multiple sensor locations.  This is very beneficial when an indication requiring subsequent traditional NDE is noted as specific areas can be targeted, minimizing the scope of subsequent examinations.  

The ability of AE testing to rapidly screen the entire lift structure for active damage growth saves time and money over the traditional load testing and comprehensive NDE approaches.   

Figure 2. Lift rig turnbuckle outfitted with AE sensor.

Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the test duration is minimal and is, effectively, part of the standard process for reactor vessel head removal.  Sensor placement is performed during the normal window of plant cooldown and vessel head de-tensioning, so outage critical path is not compromised.  The actual test itself is performed as part of the head (or internals) lift; that is, when the head breaks from the vessel flange (and maximum load is achieved), the load is held in place for 10 minutes while monitoring for and recording acoustic emission activity.  Each sensor (channel) is analyzed during the hold period and a determination is immediately made at the end of the 10-minute period as to whether the lifting rig structure is suitable for use.  Unless evidence of an imminent failure is observed, the lift immediately proceeds to the head (or internals) stand.  The gathered data are also analyzed on a graded basis.  Depending on the energy intensity of the events detected at each sensor, subsequent recommendations may range from:  ‘Good-as-is’, to ‘recommend follow-up NDE post-outage’. 

The basic process of implementation is:

  • Calibrate and test equipment offsite (factory acceptance testing)
  • Mount sensors and parametric instrumentation (strain gauges, impactors) during plant cooldown and de-tensioning
  • System check (Pencil Lead Breaks (PLBs), and impactor test)
  • Lift head to the point of maximum load
  • Hold for 10 minutes
  • Continue lift to stand (unless evidence of imminent failure is observed)
  • Final analysis / recommendations (off line, for post-outage consideration)

During our fall 2021 implementation, SI introduced several specific process improvements over  what has been historically performed.  These advances have enhanced the process from both a quality and schedule perspective.  A few of these enhancements are:

SI developed and deployed a commercial grade dedication process for the system and sensors.  Often, licensees procure this work as safety-related, meaning the requirements of 10CFR50 Appendix B apply.  The sensors and processing unit are commercially manufactured by a select few manufacturers that typically do not have QA programs that satisfy the requirements of 10CFR50, Appendix B. For this reason, SI developed a set of critical characteristics (sensor response, channel response to a simulated transient, etc.) and corresponding tests to validate that the system components are responding as-expected and can be adequately deployed in a safety-related application. 

Figure 3. Close-up of AE sensor.

The arrival time of an acoustic emission at one of the installed sensors is measured in milliseconds. For this reason, it is critical to initiate the 10-minute hold period precisely when peak load is reached. The historical method for synchronizing peak-load with the start of the hold period relied on the use of a stop-watch and video feed of the readout from the containment polar crane load cell.  When the load cell appears to max out, the time is noted and marked as the commencement of the test.  This approach can be non-conservative from a post-test analysis perspective as the data before the noted start time is typically not considered in the analysis. As the strain gauge correlation provides a much more precise point of maximum load that is directly synchronized with the data acquisition instrument, it is more likely that early acoustic emissions, which are often the most intense and most relevant, are correctly considered in the analysis.

One of the methods used in AE testing to ensure that the sensors are properly coupled and connected is a spring-loaded center punch test.  This test employs a center punch to strike the component surface, resulting in an intense sound wave that is picked up by all the sensors.  However, this test has historically been performed manually and required someone to physically approach and touch the lifting equipment.  In certain applications, this can be a safety or radiological dose issue and, additionally, can add time to an already time-critical plant operation.  For this reason, SI has introduced the use of remotely actuated impactors to perform this function. The result is equivalent but entirely eliminates the need to have personnel on the lift equipment for the test as this task is performed remotely and safely from a parametric control center.

Figure 4. Strain gauge output showing precise timing of peak load on lift rig.

Employing cutting-edge AE testing for your vessel head / internals heavy lift can save outage critical path time, reduce radiological dose, and identify structural concerns early in the process.  All of this leads to inherently safer, more efficient verification of heavy lift equipment.   

SI has the tools, expertise, and technology to apply cutting-edge AE testing to your heavy lifts.  SI is committed to continually improving the process at every implementation.  Improvements in software processing time, and setup / preparation time are currently in-process.  Finally, other potential applications for the method are also possible, and we stand ready to apply to the benefit of our clients.

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Structural Integrity Associates | Wireless Sensor Node Featured Image

High Energy Piping Monitoring

High Energy Piping Monitoring

SI moves beyond the pilot application of a High Energy Piping monitoring program designed to reduce operational risk and optimize maintenance activities.

Structural Integrity Associates | Wireless Sensor Node 6.17ESI has successfully implemented the initial application of an integrated monitoring solution that provides insight into damage evolution and operational risk using real-time data and automated engineering intelligence. This solution will assist in the optimization of maintenance activities and downtime, helping utilities get the most out of their O&M budgets.  “This is a decisive step toward a more modern asset management approach that will lower O&M cost for our clients,” said Steve Gressler, Vice President, SI Energy Services Group, a division of Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. (SI) focused on power plant asset integrity.

Informed by decades of material performance knowledge, the SI team has refined a proprietary risk-ranking method to optimize sensor placement and deliver a high-value monitoring platform supported by the PlantTrack™ asset data management platform.  The integration of monitoring information into the platform further enhances equipment asset integrity data to simplify stakeholder decision making.   The SI solution incorporates various sensors working on a distributed wireless network to feed real-time data to SI’s state-of-the-art algorithms and is also capable of integrating with existing plant data historians to pull in other valuable operational data. The outcome is a cost-effective damage monitoring approach to focus resources and the timing of comprehensive field inspections.

“The architecture enables asset managers to obtain real-time feedback, alerts, and trends that clearly link actual operating conditions to the lifecycle of critical components.,” said Jason Van Velsor, Director of Integrated Monitoring Technology at SI.

“We have supported clients with asset integrity insights for decades and now offer enhanced monitoring technology that will help automate risk management for high energy piping and help obtain the most value out of field inspection and other maintenance activities during outages.”

Unique Features of the SI Solution include:

  • Design and application of a monitoring program that focuses on safety and reliability and is consistent with guidance contained in the ASME B31.1 regulatory code.
  • Expert assessment (or Gap Analysis) to optimize monitoring including health checkups to validate optimum monitoring for plant operation.
  • Decades of material analysis insights as algorithms to expertly inform decision making.
  • Customized automated alerts to notify operators of abnormal or undesirable operating conditions affecting the life of high-energy components.

Contact Steve or Jason to learn more (

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Structural Integrity Associates | News and Views, Volume 51 | High Temperature Ultrasonic Thickness Monitoring

News & Views, Volume 51 | High Temperature Ultrasonic Thickness Monitoring


By:  Jason Van Velsor and Robert ChambersStructural Integrity Associates | News and Views, Volume 51 | High Temperature Ultrasonic Thickness Monitoring

The ability to continuously monitor component thickness at high temperatures has many benefits in the power generation industry, as well as many other industries. Most significantly, it enables condition-based inspection and maintenance, as opposed to schedule-based, which assists plant management with optimizing operations and maintenance budgets and streamlining outage schedules. Furthermore, it can assist with the early identification of potential issues, which may be used to further optimize plant operations and provides ample time for contingency and repair planning.

Over the last several years, Structural Integrity has been working on the development of a real-time thickness monitoring technology that utilizes robust, unobtrusive, ultrasonic thick-film sensor technology that is enabling continuous operation at temperatures up to 800°F. 


News & Views, Volume 49 | Rapid Assessment of Boiler Tubes Using Guided Wave Testing

News & Views, Volume 49 | Rapid Assessment of Boiler Tubes Using Guided Wave Testing

News & Views, Volume 49 | Rapid Assessment of Boiler Tubes Using Guided Wave TestingBy:  Jason Ven Velsor, Roger Royer, and Ben Ruchte

Tubing in conventional boilers and heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs) can be subject to various damage mechanisms.  Under-deposit corrosion (UDC) mechanisms have wreaked havoc on conventional units for the past 40-50 years and have similarly worked their way into the more prevalent combined cycle facilities that employ HRSGs.  Water chemistry, various operational transients, extended outage periods, etc. all play a detrimental role with regards to damage development (UDC, flow-accelerated corrosion, pitting, etc.).


News & Views, Volume 49 | Attemperator Monitoring with Wireless Sensors - Risk and Cost Reduction in Real Time

News & Views, Volume 49 | Attemperator Monitoring with Wireless Sensors: Risk and Cost Reduction in Real Time

News & Views, Volume 49 | Attemperator Monitoring with Wireless Sensors - Risk and Cost Reduction in Real TimeBy: Jason Van Velsor, Matt Freeman and Ben Ruchte

Installed sensors and continuous online monitoring are revolutionizing how power plants manage assets and risk by facilitating the transformation to condition-based maintenance routines. With access to near real-time data, condition assessments, and operating trends, operators have the opportunity to safely and intelligently reduce operations and maintenance costs and outage durations, maximize component lifecycles and uptime, and improve overall operating efficiency.

But not all data is created equal and determining what to monitor, where to monitor, selecting appropriate sensors, and determining data frequency are all critical decisions that impact data value. Furthermore, sensor procurement, installation services, data historian/storage, and data analysis are often provided by separate entities, which can lead to implementation challenges and disruptions to efficient data flow.


News & Views, Volume 49 | Hydroelectric Penstock Inspection - Field NDE Services

News & Views, Volume 49 | Hydroelectric Penstock Inspection: Field NDE Services

News & Views, Volume 49 | Hydroelectric Penstock Inspection - Field NDE ServicesBy:  Jason Van Velsor and Jeff Milligan

Our talented experts, using the latest technology and methods, deliver unmatched value, actionable information, and engineering knowledge for the management of your most critical assets.

Many of the penstocks used in the hydroelectric power industry have been in service for over 50 years.  Often with older components, historical documents like, as-built drawings and proof of material composition no longer exist.  This information is critical for inspection, repair and replacement decisions.  SI has the expertise to assist hydro clients with everything from material verification, inspection, and fitness-for-service analysis to keep penstock assets in-service for many more years to come.


News & View, Volume 46 | Turnkey Rapid-Response Plant Support Disposition of Wall Thinning in Standby Service Water Piping

News & Views, Volume 46 | Turnkey Rapid-Response Plant Support Disposition of Wall Thinning in Standby Service Water Piping

By:  Jason Van Velsor, Roger Royer, and Eric Houston

News & View, Volume 46 | Turnkey Rapid-Response Plant Support Disposition of Wall Thinning in Standby Service Water PipingStructural Integrity recently had the opportunity to support a client’s emergent needs when their Standby Service Water (SSW) piping system experienced a pinhole leak just downstream of a valve. Concerned about other locations in the piping system with similar configurations, the site asked SI to assist with the expedited development of assessment and disposition plans for these other components. In response, SI was able to lean on our core competencies in failure analysis, advanced NDE inspection, and flaw evaluation to develop and deploy a comprehensive solution that met our client’s expedited timeline and helped them to mitigate the threat of future unplanned outages. The following sections outline how SI utilized our in-depth knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and world-class engineering to meet our client’s needs.


News & View, Volume 46 | Strategies, Projects and Technologies to Help Improve NDE Reliability in the Pipeline Industry

News & Views, Volume 46 | Strategies, Projects and Technologies to Help Improve NDE Reliability in the Pipeline Industry

By: Scott Riccardella, Jason Van Velsor, and Roger Royer

News & View, Volume 46 | Strategies, Projects and Technologies to Help Improve NDE Reliability in the Pipeline Industry

Pipeline operators face a multitude of threats, including service, environmental, or operational induced degradation to pipelines and related facilities. Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) is often used to characterize the nature and extent of this degradation. Thus, there is a critical need for reliable NDE as pipeline operators rely extensively on NDE as the basis for validating In-Line Inspection (ILI) results, determining fitness for service, and making repair and other operational decisions. Erroneous or inaccurate characterization of these defects can lead to unexpected leaks or failures, unnecessary and costly repairs, the establishment of an incorrect remaining life or re-assessment interval, and inaccurate (in)validation of ILI results.


News & View, Volume 45 | Latitude™ Delivers Highlights from the First Field Deployments

News & Views, Volume 45 | Latitude™ Delivers – Highlights from the First Field Deployments

By:  Jason Van Velsor, Dave Anthony, Joe Agnew, and Michael Lashley

News & View, Volume 45 | Latitude™ Delivers Highlights from the First Field Deployments

For the past 2 ½ years, Structural Integrity Associates (SI) has been working diligently to develop, qualify and deliver the nuclear industry’s first-of-a-kind manually acquired encoded phased array UT (PAUT) examination for Section XI dissimilar metal welds (DMWs).  Development of the encoding technology behind this effort, the LATITUDETM non-mechanized encoding system, was completed in 2017, with our application-specific inspection procedure completed and qualified through the industry’s Performance Demonstration Program (PDI) in the Spring of 2018. Now, with much enthusiasm, we are proud to report that we have successfully completed the first field deployments of the LATITUDE technology and DMW procedure during the Fall 2018 outage season.